General Resources on Homelessness

Opening Doors Across America: This website provides reports and information about the nation's first comprehensive strategy to prevent and end homelessness

Point In Time Count of Homeless Persons in Snohomish County (pdf)

ASPE Research Brief, November 2011
This ASPE Research Brief explores local programs for linking human services and housing supports to prevent and end family homelessness.

Demographics of Homelessness Series: The Rising Elderly Population
There is some troubling evidence that homelessness is beginning to increase among elderly adults. In addition, there are demographic factors — such as the anticipated growth of the elderly population as baby boomers turn 65 years of age and recent reports of increases in the number of homeless adults ages 50 to 64—that suggest a dramatic increase in the elderly homeless population between 2010 and 2020. Click on the link above for more.

Ten Resources for Working with Students Experiencing Homelessness
Students experiencing homelessness have special needs and are entitled to certain services. As the school year begins, HRC offers ten resources to help providers and educators to better serve and assist students experiencing homelessness.

Sound Families website

National Alliance to End Homelessness website

The Sound Families Initiative: Final Findings Report (September 2008)
This report provides an overview and analysis of the Sound Families multiyear initiative to triple the number of service-enriched housing units for homeless families in Pierce, King, and Snohomish counties in the state of Washington. The conclusion section of the report includes a description of the characteristics of effective programs.

The Sound Families Initiative: Steering Committee Reflections and Recommended Actions (March 2008)
This report by the Sound Families Initiative Steering Committee offers recommendations on a set of concrete action steps that can be taken to improve service systems and strengthen organizational capacity. The recommendations include an improved homelessness prevention services system, a common, coordinated way for families to access homelessness services and stronger connections for those recovering from homelessness to good jobs and increased economic opportunity.

HPRP: Opportunities for Systems Transformation and Sustainability (April 2009)
This position paper describes the actions needed to move from a shelter-based system to a system based on housing stability. It includes recommendations on systems transformation in the areas of prevention, coordinated assistance with mainstream resources, and rapid re-housing. It also makes the case for a common set of performance measures.

The Ten Essentials to End Homelessness
The Ten Essentials is described by the Alliance as a toolkit for ending homelessness with a focus on the following ten areas:  Plan, Data, Emergency Prevention, Systems Prevention, Outreach, Shorten Homelessness, Rapid Re-housing, Services, Permanent Housing, and Income. There is considerable overlap with the 5 pillars.

Early Intervention and Prevention

Model program resources on the National Alliance to End Homelessness website
This page lists audio conferences and written materials on model programs for homelessness prevention in Philadelphia, Hennepin Co (MN), New York, Columbus (OH), Norfolk (VA), Lancaster (PA), San Francisco, and Washington (DC).

Presentation materials from the National Alliance to End Homelessness 2009 Conference on Ending Family Homelessness

Ohio Family Homelessness Prevention Pilot Evaluation: Update to the Interagency Council on Homelessness and Affordable Housing (January 2009)
Matt White, Abt Associates
This PowerPoint presentation describes the Ohio pilot and previews outcomes which will be collected.

Preventing Homelessness in King County, Washington (May 2008)
Lisa Gustaveson and Katherine Cortes (Building Changes) for the Committee to End Homelessness in King County
This report inventories programs contributing to homelessness prevention in King County, and recommends additional steps developed by CEHKC’s Prevention Task Force.

Preventing Homelessness and Promoting Housing Stability: A Comparative Analysis (June 2007)
Donna Haig Friedman, et al, for the Center for Social Policy (UMass Boston) and the Boston Foundation. This final 3-year evaluation report of the multi-partner Homelessness Prevention Initiative in Boston describes cost-savings and other successes, including the creation of a Prevention Clearinghouse.

Strategies for Preventing Homelessness (May 2005)
Martha R. Burt (Urban Institute), Carol Pearson, and Ann Elizabeth Montgomery for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Office of Policy Development and Research. This seminal report commissioned by HUD provides information on key research, strategies, and elements of successful prevention programs.  Six programs are profiled in detail, with individual appendices devoted to each one: Hennepin County, Minnesota; Montgomery County, Maryland; Mid-America Assistance Coalition; Massachusetts Department of Health; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Urban Peak.

Predictors of Homelessness Among Families in New York City: From Shelter Request to Housing Stability (November 1998)
Marybeth Shinn and Beth Weitzman, American Journal of Public Health. This article surveys research on homelessness and analyzes new evidence from a cohort of 266 families who became homeless in New York City, interviewed at shelter entry and five years later, along with a matched cohort. The findings suggest the difficulty of accuracy predicting homelessness and several categories of factors which may be involved.

Silos to Systems: Child Welfare
This report prepared by the Corporation for Supportive Housing focuses on preserving and strengthening families and children experiencing recurring child welfare system encounters and housing crises.

Coordinated Entry

Coordinated Entry for Housing and Homeless Services (January 2007)
Prepared by Clegg & Associates for the King County Committee to End Homelessness
This report provides a proposed definition of coordinated entry and a landscape assessment for King County, along with recommendations and design questions for a county-wide coordinated entry system.

Strategies for Preventing Homelessness (May 2005)
All appendices, including Appendix B: Montgomery County, Maryland. This case study describes coordinated entry in a scattered-site model, while the others take different approaches to this pillar.

Rapid Re-Housing

Model program resources on the National Alliance to End Homelessness
This page lists audio conferences and written materials on model programs for rapid re-housing programs in Philadelphia, Hennepin Co (MN), Columbus (OH), Norfolk (VA), Boston, Lancaster (PA), San Francisco, and Los Angeles.

Rapid Re-housing – National Alliance to End Homelessness fact sheet (July 2008)
This short preview of HUD’s Rapid Re-housing program provides some basic facts about the re-housing model.

Housing First & Rapid Rehousing Series: Helping Chronically Homeless Individuals Access and Stabilize in Housing (May 2008)
Powerpoint presentation, Sam Tsemberis (Pathways to Housing). This presentation offers lessons from the Pathways to Housing program in Portland (OR) including core program characteristics, evaluation data, and recommendations for systems change.

Strategies for Preventing Homelessness (May 2005)
Appendix A (page A-1): Hennepin County, Minnesota. This case study provides detail on a pioneering rapid-rehousing program.

Tailored Services

Overview of Published Studies on the Characteristics and Needs of Homeless Families (2007)
Ellen Bassuk, Executive Director, National Center on Family Homelessness
This very brief document inventories helpful research and publications on the needs of homeless mothers and children and the mix of housing and services appropriate for meeting them.

Service Level Matrix (2007)
This matrix was used by the Washington Families Fund Steering Committee in determining to establish a High Level Services funding track.

The Role of Housing and Services in Ending Family Homelessness (2006)
Ellen L. Bassuk and Stephanie Geller (National Center on Family Homelessness) in Housing Policy Debate. This article reviews what is known about the role of housing and services in reducing family homelessness, and discusses the additional research needed to better understand the role of housing and services in stabilizing different subgroups of families, as well as which approaches are most cost-effective.

Homelessness: Programs and the People They Serve: Findings of the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (December 1999) – Chapter 4c, Homeless Assistance Programs: Service Level and Program Size
This section of this HUD publication describes the results of the NSHAP as relates to estimates of service types and levels used by homeless people.

Economic Opportunity

Recognizing Work as a Priority in Preventing or Ending Homelessness (June 2007)
Gary Shaheen and John Rio. This practice-oriented report from the field proposes that employment should be offered as early as possible and maintains that facilitating employment is an unrecognized and underutilized practice for preventing and ending homelessness. The paper provides principles, practices, and strategies programs can use to make work a priority.

Developing Community Employment Pathways for Homeless Job Seekers in King County & Washington State (February 2007)
This report, which was prepared as part of the Taking Health Care Home initiative, describes the homeless employment services landscape and identifies promising opportunities for action. It provides strategies for improving collaboration, enhancing homeless assistance and employment services, and promoting systems change across the workforce development and homeless assistance systems in King County and Washington State. (The Building Changes “Think-Tank” provides information on resources, reports and related links.

Creating Community Employment Pathways (April 2009)
This guidebook on employment pathways for the homeless is intended for Continuum of Care (CoC) lead agencies, CoC working groups, homeless assistances providers, state and local Workforce Investment Boards (WIBs), and One-Stop Career Center operators and partners. The purpose of the guidebook is to provide practical advice to communities seeking to create more effective means of helping people who are homeless obtain and maintain employment. It aims to help communities link the various service systems required for improved employment outcomes (HUD’s Homelessness Resource Exchange provides comprehensive information and resources for providers who are assisting persons who are homeless or at risk of becoming homeless.

Toolkit for Connecting Supportive Housing Tenants to Employment
Corporation for Supportive Housing. The purpose of this Toolkit is to provide access to tools, case studies, evaluations, sample documents, and other useful resources for connecting supportive housing tenants to employment.  In creating this resource, CSH’s goal is to help supportive housing organizations, workforce partners, and employers address key challenges in the planning, implementation, and ongoing maintenance of employment-related services and programs.

Chronic Homelessness Employment Technical Assistance Center
The Center offers technical assistance and training to providers and policy recommendations to USDOL regarding serving people who are chronically homeless in employment programs. This page offers click-through information on the Center’s employment and housing demonstration projects in Los Angeles, CA; Portland, OR; Indianapolis, IN; Boston, MA; and San Francisco, CA.

Ending Chronic Homelessness through Employment and Housing: A Program and Policy Handbook for Successfully Linking Supportive Housing and Employment Services for Chronically Homeless Adults (2008)
This Handbook summarizes key lessons learned from the five-year U.S. DOL and HUD demonstration projects in five cities, funded through the Ending Chronic Homelessness through Employment and Housing (ECHEH) initiative. This Handbook is intended to assist and inform service providers, program planners, policy makers, and community leaders who want to understand the key ingredients, operational procedures, and policy implications for establishing an effective approach to providing employment and housing services to formerly homeless individuals with multiple barriers to employment and housing stability. In addition to policy and systems change information, the handbook includes many samples and tools from the five ECHEH sites.

Common Employment Strategies in the US DOL-HUD Initiative to End Chronic Homelessness through Employment and Housing (2008)
This report summarizes the findings of a survey that CHETA developed and conducted regarding staff practices within the five DOL-HUD Initiative projects in order to: determine the common employment service interventions used by staff across the five sites; identify possible training needs for personnel providing these direct services; and stimulate discussion of such practices with project leaders and staff.

Employment and Income Supports for Homeless People (2007)
In this paper, the authors synthesize the findings of recent studies examining the role of mainstream programs such as Social Security Administration (SSA) disability programs, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), and Workforce Investment Act (WIA) initiatives in enhancing employment and incomes for people who have experienced homelessness.  The report also describes the design and outcomes of targeted programs designed specifically to address employment and income support for people who are homeless.  While some rigorous evaluations have been done on mainstream programs, the effects of the interventions on the subpopulation that has been homeless are often not addressed. Few rigorous studies have been done on targeted programs. The authors draw several conclusions from the available evidence and outline future research directions to fill important gaps in the research literature.

The Self-Sufficiency Standard for Washington State (September 2001)
Diana Pearce, with Jennifer Brooks, for the Washington Association of Churches, the Washington Living Wage Movement and the Washington Self-Sufficiency Standard Committee. This paper presents a new measure of income adequacy (the Self-Sufficiency Standard) which measures how much income is needed, for a family of a given composition in Washington, to adequately meet its basic needs—without public or private assistance.

Silos to Systems
This report prepared by the Corporation for Supportive Housing focuses on connecting vulnerable families to work and incomes to prevent and end homelessness.